User Guide

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In order to explore the pedigrees of a particular breed, you start by selecting the database for this breed from the available choices. This will lead you to the search page for the database in question.

Multilingual Application

NetPedigree 2 is a multilingual application which means that it can show different languages. Each browser has a preferred-language setting (locale) that indicates which language and country/region you prefer. NetPedigree 2 uses this setting when presenting the contents.

User Settings

You can change some of the behavior of NetPedigree by defining your own settings. This is done by clicking on User Preferences at the top of the pages and then chose the preferred settings. These settings are stored in a cookie and if you don't allow cookies for you can't use this function.

  • Country/Region - Normally you shouldn't change the Browser Default setting but if you for some reason want to do that you do it here. Note that the date format also follows from this setting if the ISO date is inactivated.
  • On single search match - You can choose if a single search match should lead you directly to the pedigree or not.
  • Text size - The preferred size of the text.
  • Use ISO date - The ISO date format (yyyy-mm-dd) is used by default since this was the format used in NetPedigree 1, but if you want the date to be shown according to you language (locale) setting you can specify that here.

About Our Search System

The searches are case insensitive, so 'A' and 'a' are the same when searching. The matching is made word by word and the order of the words doesn't matter.

You can also specify words that shouldn't be part of the result by putting a minus (-) sign in front of the word. That is, names that match the word are excluded from the search result.

We have the following search settings:

  • 'Substring' matches animals which have the search words somewhere in the name. To give a match all words must exist.
  • 'Exact' matches names that have words that match the search words exactly. Note that the name can contain more words than those in the search string and still give a hit.
  • 'Few errors', 'Some errors', and 'Many errors' gives an approximates search and set the level of errors that are allowed to give a hit. It is in this case enough that one of the words gives a match. If you want to force one or more words to be matched you put a plus (+) sign in front of those words.

When using 'Substring' the results are presented in alphabetic order. The other choices order the results according to how good the match is. Results with the same match rating are ordered alphabetically.

Note that a name containing more words than searched for gives a lower match rating.

Search examples:

  • 'ylle' with the substring search matches all animals which have the string 'ylle' somewhere in their name.
  • 'mango' with the exact search matches all animals which have the _word_ 'mango' somewhere in their name.
  • 'mango' with the substring search matches all animals which have the substring 'mango' somewhere in their name.
  • 'yletrolltz' with the search with errors (approximate search) matches all animals which matches approximately the word 'yletrolltz'.
  • 'mango ylletroll' with the substring search matches all animals which have both the substring 'ylletroll' and 'mango' in their name. When used with the approximate search animals that match the words 'mango' _or_ 'ylletroll' within the specified amount of errors are included in the result.
  • '+mango +ylletroll' with the approximate search matches all animals that match the words 'mango' _and_ 'ylletroll' within the specified amount of errors.
  • 'mango -ylle' with the substring search matches all animals with 'mango' in their name which don't have 'ylle' in their name. When used with the approximate search all animals which match 'mango' within the specified amount of errors but don't match 'ylle' within the same amount of errors are included in the result.

Date Format

As default the date of birth is given in the form 'yyyy-mm-dd', e.g. '1997-04-09' meaning April 9, 1997. You can however change the format in the User Settings (see above).

Advanced Search

In the page for advanced search you can search for animals not only by name, but also by colour, sex, birthdate, country, etc.

If you search for specific birthdates, this should be given in the format 'yyyy-mm-dd', unless you have chosen to have the date format changed according to your browser settings, in which case you should give the dates in the same format in the advanced search.

The colour code could be searched for in the same way as the name - using for instance 'd -s' in a cat database if you only want to see red cats, but not red silvers.

Number Of Generations Shown In The Pedigree

On the search page itself, you can already select how many generations you prefer to see for the animal of your choice. You can however also chose this when you are on the page with the pedigree, by clicking on the numbers just above the pedigree, below the name of the animal.

Printer Friendly

There is a link to a printer friendly version of the pedigree. From this page there is no link back, but you can of course - as usual - click on the 'back' button of your web browser.

Breed and Colour Codes

The breed, colour, and pattern are basically given in FIFe's EMS system. We however had to adjust the system a bit in order to make it also applicable for breeds which are not recognised by the FIFe. We have also given breed codes to breeds of other species, for which we have databases on PawPeds. At the top of the database pages you will find a link 'Breed & Colour', which will help you to decode a breed and colour code.

Country Codes

We are trying to provide information on which country the animals were born in and where they now live. This is given in the pedigrees and lists as for example US/DE, meaning that the animal was born in the USA (US) but now lives in Germany (DE). The codes we use are ISO 3166-1-alpha-2 code elements.

We did not initially enter these codes in the databases, so many animals might lack country codes even in cases where we do know the location of the animal. We will continue to work on this.

Inbreeding Coefficient

The inbreeding coefficient is a measure of the proportion of loci that are homozygous because of the relationship between the parents. In other words, it is the percentage of probability that a particular locus is homozygous due to the relationship between the parents. So 100 % would mean that the animal is homozygous in every locus. That is, for every gene the animal inherited from the mother, an identical gene was also inherited from the father. A high inbreeding coefficient occurs when the father and the mother are closely related. An inbreeding coefficient of 0 % would mean that no locus is homozygous because of any relationship between the parents. If the inbreeding coefficient is 0 %, it means that the parents of the animal are not related.

Some comparison matings:

  • When a cat is mated with a sister/brother: 25 %
  • When a cat is mated with a parent: 25 %
  • When a cat is mated with a halfsister/halfbrother: 12.5 %
  • When a cat is mated with a grandparent: 12.5 %
  • When a cat is mated with a cousin: 6,25 %

If we knew the background of an animal for thousands of years, then all the animals in that huge pedigree would be a little bit related and the inbreeding coefficient of an animal would never be 0 %. If such an animal were compared to an animal whose background is only known for a few generations, it would appear as if this animal were much less inbred. But this, of course, is not necessarily true. When we are comparing pedigrees, we must always consider for how many generations we are calculating the inbreeding coefficient.

The program will give you the inbreeding coefficient for the number of generations that the pedigree shows. If you would like to have the inbreeding coefficient calculated as far back as there is info in the database, you can click on the word 'inbreeding'. This coefficient will then be calculated. Note though that this inbreeding coefficient is no more complete than the pedigree is in the database! Be sure to check if there are any ancestors missing before interpreting the meaning of any inbreeding coefficient, regardless of the number of generations it is calculated from!

How high inbreeding coefficient should we allow?

According to population geneticists the average coefficient, of all the matings we do in a breed, should increase by less than 0,25-0,5 percentage point per generation. If the increase is higher, the population will be at risk of health problems due to inbreeding. It might take many generations before the problems become visible, but when they arise they will be difficult to remove from the breed.

Looking at individual matings, no single mating should be closer than approximately the mating of first cousins. This is in order to avoid direct inbreeding damage in the resulting litter.

List Offspring

If you want to see a list of the offspring of a particular animal, you click on 'offspring' above the pedigree. After the word 'offspring' you can see how many offspring the animal has registered in the database. If the animal has no offspring, there will be no link.

In the offspring list you will see all the offspring of the animal that we have in the database. The other parent of the offspring in question will also be listed. Click on the name of any of these animals to get its pedigree. After each partner's and offspring's name, you can see how many offspring that animal has, and click on the number to get the offspring list of that animal.

Reverse Pedigree

There is also an option to make a reverse pedigree. This means that you can see from any given animal its offspring, grand-offspring, great-grand-offspring, etc. When you are on the page with the pedigree of a specific animal, in the row above the name you will see 'Reverse'. When you click on it you get a list of all the descendants of this animal, up to a maximum of 10 generations and/or 1.000 animals. In that list you will see behind some names [rev], this means that for this animal too a reverse pedigree is available.

Test Mating

If you click on Test mating in the page header, you will get an empty pedigree, in which you can fill in animals from the database, to create a test mating. Click on 'add cat' (or 'add dog' or what ever species it is) in the position where you want to enter an animal. Then you search for and select the animal of your choice. Then click on 'add cat' in another position, search and select an animal, etc. Continue until the pedigree is filled up. Then you can look at inbreeding coefficients and pedigree analyses as usual.

If you then click on 'Test mating by using this cat as sire' (or dog/horse/ferret etc.), the animal - with the entire pedigree - that you have in front of you will be moved so that it will be the sire in a testmating pedigree with empty positions on the dam's side. If you click on 'Use this cat (dog/horse/ferret...) as dam' instead, the animal in front of you will be moved to the position of the dam in a pedigree with empty space on the sire's side.

You can also click on the words Cat 2, Cat 3, etc. (or Dog 1, Horse 1, etc.), or on the name of an animal, in order to look at the pedigree of the selected animal, and make calculations for that pedigree.

By clicking on the link 'Change' you can replace an animal already in the test mating pedigree. If you want to remove an animal from the test mating pedigree, you click on 'Remove' in the pedigree.

The link Test mate in the line just above an animal's pedigree is a shortcut to make a testmating with the animal you have in front of you as the sire or dam. You can then add the other parent, or the grandparents, as usual, by clicking on 'add cat' (or 'add dog', 'add horse' etc.) in the position of your choice.

Pedigree Analysis

In order to get a better picture of what the pedigree looks like, many generations back, there are one or more pedigree analyses available. These also could help you to estimate how much of an outcross an animal is in relation to the breed's genepool as a whole. Click on 'Analysis Info' to get more, breed specific, information about how to interpret the pedigree analyses of each breed.


The link 'Photos' above a pedigree will take you to a page with pictures and/or picture links of the animal in question. A link [p] after an animal in a pedigree or in a list of animals also goes to the photo page for that animal. These pictures are not always published by us, but are only linked to pictures published by others, somewhere on the net. Since pictures are sometimes moved or removed, the links can be broken on occasion. We are trying to remove broken links, but there will probably always be some left.

Sending In Pedigrees

If you want to send in pedigree info or corrections to be registered in the databases, please click on 'Submit Info' at the top of the database pages of the breed in question. That will take you to a page with information about where and how to send the information.


If you have any further question, please check the FAQ for the database in question, if available, before asking us or the database maintainers! You can find the link to the FAQ at the top of every page in the databases.