Genetics Picture

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Basic Genetics

The cell

All organisms consist of cells. They live either as singular cells or as larger or smaller aggregations. Bacteria and microscopic creatures consist of one single cell, but higher plants and animals consist of many thousands, millions or billions of cells. In such complicated organisms the cells have different tasks and are gathered in organs with different functions. Examples of such organs are for instance brain, kidneys, and lungs or in plants leaves and pistils.

Form and size of a cell can vary very much. All of them can be seen though as a mixture of biological molecules inside a bag. The "wrapping" is called cell membrane and the "soup" within, the cytoplasm, contains a large amount of easily recognized structures, which all have a specific function. The largest structure is the cell core, called "nucleus", which contains the chromosomes.